For a change, I decided to check out the Klimaforum today. The Klimaforum10 known as the People’s Climate Summit was held on the sidelines of the COP16. Klimaforum 10 is an autonomous grassroots initiative parallel to the COP16 hosted by the United Nations, which was held from the 26th of November until the 11th of December 2010 at Puerto Morelos, just 20 Minutes from the COP16.
Klimaforum presents a diversity of climate related activities – debates, workshops and exhibitions – along with different performances – music, theatre and film – representing the whole world. The Klimaforum has also been a common place for the youths to campaign their cause.
The Youths did a video to spur negotiators into a legally-binding solution:
The power of youths @ COP16
ARTICLE 6: EDUCATION, TRAINING AND PUBLIC AWARENESS
In carrying out their commitments under Article 4, paragraph 1(i), the Parties shall:
(a) Promote and facilitate at the national and, as appropriate, sub-regional and regional levels, and in accordance with national laws and regulations, and within their respective capacities:
(i) The development and implementation of educational and public awareness programmes on climate change and its effects;
(ii) Public access to information on climate change and its effects;
(iii) Public participation in addressing climate change and its effects and developing adequate responses; and
(iv) Training of scientific, technical and managerial personnel.
(b) Cooperate in and promote, at the international level, and, where appropriate, using existing bodies:
(i) The development and exchange of educational and public awareness material on climate change and its effects; and
(ii) The development and implementation of education and training programmes, including the strengthening of national institutions and the exchange or secondment of personnel to train experts in this field, in particular for developing countries.
A draft COP agreement has been reached on Article 6, largely attributing to the effort of the youths. In fact, all of the points raised by the youth constituency were included in the new agreement, particularly pertaining to non-formal education, youth participation in decision-making and funding for education programmes.
However, all this work would be in vain should COP reject the draft SBI decision. Evaluating the circumstances, Parties have ample education and preparation to view Article
Bearers of future responsibility: engaging children and youth in building climate change resilience.
Organized by International Save the Children
An impactful event which draw from the work on child-led adaptation program, specifically how the voice of children is necessary to achieve community-led adaptation to bring about integrated and effective climate change resilience.
(Taken from uniteforclimate.org)
The world’s children can too play an important role in reducing disaster risk and ensuring effective climate adaptation and mitigation. A recent study commissioned by the Children in a Changing Climate Coalition found that children can make a number of positive contributions to adapting to risk posed by climate change.
Below are the statements from UNICEF climate ambassadors:
Coralie Norris, 14, Haiti
Walter Perriott, 12,
In Cancún, the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) presented a report on the potential economic costs of climate change in the region by the end of the century if global mitigation and adaptive actions are not taken.
UN Climate Change Conference in Cancún delivers balanced package of decisions, restores faith in multilateral process:
The scientists note that ocean acidification is already detectable and is accelerating. They caution that its negative impacts can be avoided only by limiting future atmospheric CO2 levels.
IUCN’s Dorothée Herr has been walking the halls pushing the ocean message. While highlighting such problems as ocean acidification, she’s also keen to point out the possibilities that oceans offer for carbon sequestration.
There is a certain degree of ecological illiteracy that underlies all of human actions in the past century. The oceans where life first originated has been abused beyond repair. The tsunami, hurricanes and typhoons warn us how little we know about this ancient life support system. The deep relationship that exists between oceans and the climate of Earth that is being understood each day leaves us spellbound. The impact of Climate Change exposes to us what more could be in store and to many inconvenient Truths. It also has shown to us how human kind can come together like never before and discuss what needs to be done – the real time for TURN OF THE TIDE and TURN OFF.
The book is intended for educators in both the formal and informal sector. It shows the possible directions in which communication can be initiated about these crucial issues. The content of the book has been formulated after a few years of sharing with students, teachers, policy level planners and scientists.
Notes by Mark Cheng, a World Ocean Network participant at COP16 (more info click here)
The world’s oceans play a central role in climate, akin to the Earth’s lungs and circulatory system-generating oxygen, absorbing carbon dioxide and regulating climate and temperature. Oceans already absorb over 80% of the heat added to the climate system and nearly 50% of all CO2 added to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels over past 250 years.
But, the oceans’ ability to provide these life-sustaining services is now at risk. Rising ocean temperatures trigger board-scale effects, such as melting polar ice, rising sea levels, shifting species distribution and abundance, erratic weather patterns, increased frequency and intensity of storms, and changes in ocean currents. Moreover, rising levels of CO2 absorbed by seawater has caused a 30% increase in acidity, posing serious threats to marine ecosystems and the millions of people dependent upon them. The more than 50% of the human population that lives in 183 coastal countries, including 44 small island nations, are at the frontline of climate change and will suffer disproportionate impacts.
Oceans and coasts, however, have not yet figured on agenda of the UNFCCC.
Conclusions of Oceans Day at Cancún, by Mark Cheng
A comprehensive oceans and climate program would encompass:
1. Ensure the continuing functioning of the oceans in sustaining life on Earth by adopting stringent reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, within a short time-frame, to avoid disastrous consequences on oceans and coastal communities.
2. Emphasize the positive contributions that oceans and coastal areas play in the mitigation of global warming through:
(i) Use of natural carbon sinks in coastal areas (eg. Mangroves, seagrass beds, kelp forests, tidal marshes) which have a greater capacity (per unit of area) than terrestrial carbon sinks in achieving long-term carbon sequestration in sediments. “Blue Carbob” could be traded and handled in the similar way as Green Carbon (eg. Rainforests) and entered into emission and climate mitigation protocols.
(ii) Reduction of CO2 emissions from ships through a variety of technical and operational measures. CO2 emissions from international shipping, accounting for 2.7% of global emissions in 2007, are expected to grow to 18% by 2050 s a result of growth in world trade.
(iii) Development of ocean-bases renewable energy, such as wind power, currents, tides, and OTEC, through the use of marine spatial planning, giving appropriate priority to marine renewable energy and through funding for large-scale development and implementation.
(iv) Careful consideration of carbon capture and storage via injection in deep seabed geological formations.
Some geo-engineering approaches such as direct injection of CO2 into water column, and ocean fertilization, however, should be discouraged due to the potential for irreversible harm to the marine environment.
1. Implement adaptation measures through integrated coastal and ocean management institutions at national, regional, and local levels to achieve the preparedness, resilience, and adaptive capacities of coastal communities.
2. Encourage the application of ecosystem-based adaptation strategies to preserve, restore and increase the resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems, including through the use of marine protected areas.
3. Prepare for the legal, economic, social and humanitarian issues associated with the displacement of coastal populations due to climate change.
Capacity development and public education
Extensive capacity development, public education and awareness programs are urgently needed to prepare national and local officials and the public in coastal regions to address climate change.
Adaptation cost estimates for coastal areas and small island states are woefully inadequate, as are the adaptation resources currently available. UNFCCC 2007 estimates the cost if adaptation in coastal zones at about $11 billion/year, using lower seas level rise predictions and not including potential impacts of increased storm intensity. With over half of the world’s population living in coastal regions and likely to experience the most pronounced effects of climate change, at least half the funds made available for adaptation should target coastal and island peoples and countries.
Climate Change Village
The Mexican Federal Government has decided to create the Climate Change Village, a space to promote dialogue related to environmental issues amongst non-governmental organizations, the private sector and civil society.
The Climate Change Village offers to the public free of charge:
(B) Willy Sousa´s exhibition “Mexico en tus Sentidos”, which has had enormous success showcasing images and videos on Mexican identity.
(C) Clean energy exhibitions from businesses as well as sponsors concerned with the environment.
(D) Artistic and cultural events as well as concerts that will be held every night at the music festival “Singing for the Planet”.
The Climate Change Village is a venue designed to promote the concepts, projects, dialogue, and coexistence on the subject of climate change. Located 13 km (8 miles) away from the Moon Palace Hotel, the Village will host thematic expositions, conferences, and debates performed by the civil society, as well as cultural and artistic events and exhibits.
The Village will run from Saturday, November 27th, to Sunday, December 12th, 2010, during which period an estimated 12 thousand visitors are expected daily. Among such visitors will be delegates from the COP16/CMP6, non-governmental organizations, media, tourists, and Cancún residents.
Future Generations Day
Notes by Mark Cheng, a World Ocean Network participant at COP16 (more info click here)
December 2 is a special day at COP 16: A day dedicated to youth and future generations. We call it Young and Future Generations (YoFuGe) Day. We think it is important to recognize the role of young people in the UNFCCC negotiations, since we are the once, who are going to experience the consequences of climate change at a large scale. We celebrated this day with a lot of actions and side events all over the two venues of the COP: Cancún Messe and Moon Palace.
The first action of the day took place at the point w here all the official country delegates are passing in the morning, to catch a shuttle bus to Moon Palace. The youths were standing in two rows wearing our blue Young and Future Generations Day t-shirts with a quote on the back:
“You have been negotiating my whole life – you cannot tell me you need more time.” - by a 17-year old girl from the Solomon Islands last year at COP 15.
Non-formal Peer education and article 6: youth organizations lead the way to tackle climate change
By YOUNGO - Notes by Mark Cheng, a World Ocean Network participant at COP16 (more info click here)
Some country recognizes youths to be in junior delegation such as Philippines & Africa. The event, which included a UNFCCC representative, presented how youths implement Article 6 and showcased how their roles affected negotiation, with statistics showing that things are getting better kudos to YOUNGO.
A guide has also been created by older youths detailing the jargons used by the COP16/CMP6 for younger youths. Plans to have more non-formal education among the youths are underway.
Some projects accomplished include:
1. Mexico: Youth collect hair from hair-dressers and barbers to make boons to contain the recent gulf oil spill.
2. Australia: Storm drains painted with strips by youths to distinct and instil prevention from dumping of waste water.
3. Kenya: Every youth who joined the green youth club is required to plant a tree, and have since planted 10 million trees as of today.
Blue Carbon: Valuing CO2 mitigation by coastal marine systems
By Conservation International & IUCN
Reporting from IISD (ENBOTS) - by Mark Cheng, a World Ocean Network participant at COP16 (more info click here)
The event discussed the potential for Marine ecosystems to contribute to climate change mitigation. Ms Emily Pidgeon from Conservation International mentioned how coastal management is essential for managing climate change and provides an effective, low cost mitigation tool. She estimated that US$25 billion per year provided for the coastal ecosystem services could form the basis for developing a REDD-like incentive agreement for coastal ecosystems and said sea grasses, salt marshes, and mangroves store significant amounts of carbon in their sediments.
Dorothée Herr from IUCN emphasized that there are opportunities to link coastal wetland management to climate mitigation policy. She said REDD+ can apply to mangrove forests and that SBSTA’s guidance on degradation drivers, methodologies, and monitoring, reporting and verification standards is applicable to these ecosystems. She proposed developing a REDD-like financial mechanism for soil-based carbon storage and sequestration that can synergize with REDD+. She also suggested: looking for opportunities in Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA); including coastal management under Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), if accounting rules are developed; and increasing support for coastal projects under the CDM.
Stephen Crooks from ESA PWA Consulting noted that more research is needed to fully understand wetland biochemistry, especially on the amount of carbon absorbed and released into the water versus into the air.
Roger Ullman, Linden Trust for Conservation, presented some preliminary research on the economic valuation of wetlands and blue carbon schemes. He said, assuming a price of carbon of $US20 per tonne and a discount rate of 10%, mangroves provide US$15-25,000 per hectare compared to approximately US$8,000 for tropical forests. He said this implies that wetland carbon credit schemes could be more valuable than shrimp farming.
On the side note, IUCN proposed several recommendations for COP16:
IUCN calls for rapid and robust action by States, communities and individuals to take all possible steps to cut their emissions of all greenhouse gases immediately to ensure that the target agreed at Copenhagen, i.e. to limit the rise in global average temperature to 2ºC above pre-industrial levels can be achieved. This will require stronger quantified emission reduction targets by developed countries and enhanced nationally appropriate mitigation action by those developing countries with emerging economies.